Columbia ISA
Audio – Video


Home Theater
Hard disk
Media capacity
HDMI Versions
High Definition Multimedia Interface

High Definition Audio Video
New versions / revisions / releases of HDMI
HDMI 1.0, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3

The HDMI digital audio/video hookup has been available since late 2002. More and more devices are showing up with HDMI ports. Most HDTV sets sold after 2005 have HDMI inputs.

HDMI allows a high bandwidth video and audio connection all in one cable. HDMI can handle 480i, 480p, 576i, 576p, 720p, 1080i, 1080p and 1440p and will handle even higher video resolutions in the future. The connector is relatively small, similar in size to a USB Type A connector, and has 19 pins.

HDMI provides an interface between any compatible digital audio/video source, such as a set-top box, a DVD player, a PC, a video game console, or an AV receiver and a compatible digital audio and/or video monitor, such as a digital television (DTV and HDTV). In 2006, HDMI began to appear as a feature on HD camcorders and high-end digital still cameras.

It is a modern replacement for older analog standards such as RF - coaxial cable, composite video, S-Video, SCART, component video and VGA, and the consumer electronics replacement for older digital standards such as DVI.

Devices are manufactured to adhere to various versions of the specification, where each version is given a number, such as 1.0 or 1.3. Each concurrent version of the specification uses the same cables, but increases the throughput and/or capabilities of what can be transmitted over the cable. For example, previously, the maximum pixel clock rate of the interface was 165 MHz, sufficient for supporting 1080p at 60 Hz or WUXGA (1920x1200), but HDMI 1.3 increased that to 340 MHz, providing support for WQXGA (2560x1600) and beyond.

HDMI also includes support for 8-channel uncompressed digital audio at 192 kHz sample rate with 24 bits/sample as well as any compressed stream such as Dolby Digital, or DTS. HDMI supports up to 8 channels of one-bit audio, such as that used on Super Audio CDs at rates up to 4x that used by SuperAudio CD. With version 1.3, HDMI now also supports lossless compressed streams such as Dolby TrueHD and DTS-HD Master Audio.

The standard Type A HDMI connector has 19 pins, with bandwidth to support all SDTV, EDTV and HDTV modes and more. The plug outside dimensions are 13.9 mm wide by 4.45 mm high. Type A is electrically compatible with single-link DVI-D.

Revision History:

HDMI 1.0 Released December 2002.
Single-cable digital audio/video connection with a maximum bitrate of 4.9 Gbit/s. Supports up to 165Mpixels/s video (1080p60 Hz or UXGA) and 8-channel/192 kHz/24-bit audio.

HDMI 1.1 Released May 2004.
Added support for DVD audio (DVD-A)

HDMI 1.2 Released August 2005.

* Added support for One Bit Audio, used on Super Audio CDs, up to 8 channels.
* Availability of HDMI Type A connector for PC sources.
* Ability for PC sources to use native RGB color-space while retaining the option to support the YCbCr CE color space.
* Requirement for HDMI 1.2 and later displays to support low-voltage sources.

HDMI 1.3 Released June 2006.

* Increases single-link bandwidth to 340 MHz (10.2 Gbps)
* Optionally supports 30-bit, 36-bit, and 48-bit xvYCC with Deep Color or over one billion colors, up from 24-bit sRGB or YCbCr in previous versions.
* Incorporates automatic audio syncing (lip sync) capability.
* Supports output of Dolby TrueHD and DTS-HD Master Audio streams for external decoding by AV receivers. TrueHD and DTS-HD are lossless audio codec formats used on HD DVDs and Blu-ray Discs. If the disc player can decode these streams into uncompressed audio, then HDMI 1.3 is not necessary, as all versions of HDMI can transport uncompressed audio.

* Availability of a new mini connector for devices such as camcorders.
* The Sony PlayStation 3 is the first product on consumer market with HDMI 1.3.
* Epson released EMP-TW1000 as the first display supporting 30-bit deep color.

HDMI 1.3a
Released November 2006.

* Cable and Sink modifications for Type C
* Source termination recommendation
* Removed undershoot and maximum rise/fall time limits.
* CEC capacitance limits changed
* RGB video quantization range clarification
* CEC commands for timer control brought back in an altered form, audio control commands added.
* Concurrently released compliance test specification included.

HDMI 1.3

The transition from analog to digital in video has been relatively quick and HDMI has been a key enabler. Virtually all HD equipment utilizes HDMI to transport audio/video from the source to the display. The original rendition of HDMI, HDMI 1.0 was released back in 2002 and has been the de facto standard for HD Video transmission. As the digital revolution has continued, HDMI has also evolved from 1.0, 1.1, 1.2 and HDMI 1.3.

-Availability of a new mini connector for devices such as camcorders.

You will still get incredible HD picture quality with HDMI 1.1 and 1.2 and all versions support 1080P. HDMI 1.3 is backwards compatible with previous versions of HDMI. Getting HDMI 1.3 display and HDMI sources will enable you to take advantage of the extra feature enhancements available. If you are in the market for a new HDTV, then it would be advisable to get one with HDMI 1.3 support.

HDMI 1.3 what is different:

On the physical layer level, all HDMI versions utilize Transmission Minimized Differential Signaling, TMDS and the physical connector looks identical. The major enhancements of HDMI 1.3 are:

Expanded Data Rate Support
HDMI 1.2 supports aggregate data rate of 4.95 Gbps.
In order to ensure that HDMI is the connectivity of the future, HDMI 1.3 has provisions to eventually double the bandwidth from 4.95 Gbps to 10.2 Gbps. For comparative purpose, USB 2.0 has a maximum data transfer rate of 480 Mbps, 1/20 of the data rate of HDMI 1.3.

Although, HDMI 1.3 has provision for up to 10.2Gbps, the transition will be gradual with the first devices available to achieve 6.75Gbps initially.

Deeper Color and higher resolution
The increased bandwidth in HDMI 1.3 enables higher display resolutions beyond the typical 1920x1080P resolution and improved color depth. For example, HDMI 1.2 allows 8 bits/ pixel to be allocated for color information. In version 1.3, HDMI has provisions to support 10, 12 and 16 bit color/ pixel thus allowing for even improvement in picture quality.

Lip Synch Correction
The modern HDTV performs complex digital processing to the incoming video signal such as de-interlacing, format conversion, noise reduction and etc. The digital video processing takes finite time to execute and must be synchronized with the audio portion of the incoming signal to ensure that both video and audio are synchronized and no delay is perceived. Most HDTV have compensation to ensure that the audio and video are properly synchronized However, many consumers will likely process the audio separately in a surround sound system. HDMI 1.3s lip synch feature allows the audio and video signal to be synchronized to external HDMI devices.

Mini Connector
HDMI 1.3 has also added an optional mini HDMI connectors so hand-held HD video devices such as HD video cameras can also utilize HDMI for HD connectivity.

What is still the same
HDMI 1.3 is fully backwards compatible with previous versions of HDMI. So if your display supports 1.2 and your source is 1.3 capable. The source and display will arbitrate for the best available format. HDCP, although not required by HDMI 1.3, still enables HDCP to be implemented over the HDMI interface.

What is HDMI

HDMI is an acronym for High Definition Multi-Media Interface. The HDMI specification was created by some of the largest consumer electronics manufacturers in the world: Hitachi, Matsushita, Philips, Silicon Image, Sony, Thomson, and Toshiba. HDMI is the latest digital HDTV interconnection standard. The notable differences between HDMI and the earlier HDTV interconnects standards (component video, and DVI) are:

-HDMI is all digital unlike analog component video cables

-HDMI supports multi-channel audio in addition to digital video. (DVI only supports digital video)

- HDMI is more compact in size and carries both audio and video signals therefore eliminate cable clutter.

-HDMI incorporates content protection called HDCP ( high definition content protection)

What does a HDMI connector look like: HDMI looks similar to a USB cable. The compact size and high integration (carries both audio and video) makes the HDTV installation experience truly "plug and play."

Why should I use HDMI:

-HDMI is all digital, so picture quality is "perfect" from source to display

-HDMI is both a digital audio and video connection. This will minimize cabling in your system

-HDMI is rapidly becoming the de facto standard for HDTV connections.

How does HDMI transport the digital video:

The video portion of HDMI is carried by 3 separate differential pairs. Each pair transports 1 of 3 uncompressed native digital R,G, B signals from source ( dvd player, set top box) to the sink ( HDTV display). A unique protocol, T.M.D.S.( transmission minimized differential signaling), is used to transport the digital data. Each pixel is represented by 24 bits ( 8 bits each for each of the primary colors). The T.M.D.S. protocol then "calculates" and stuffs 2 extra bits to the video data stream in order to create a digital stream with minimum transitions ( lower EMI, lower interference) and also minimize long strings of '1' and '0' which can cause detection errors.

A fourth differential pair, called the TMDS clock provides the pixel clock for timing the data stream. The maximum TMDS single link pixel clock rate is 165 MHz.

What is the data rate of a single link HDMI connection:

The maximum pixel clock rate is 165MHz and each of the 3 TMDS video streams carries 10 bits. Therefore the aggregate data rate is 3 x 10 x 165MHz = 4.96Gbps. How many pins are included in the HDMI connector:

There are 19 individual pins in the HDMI connector. There are 3 pairs of TMDS signals which carry all the digital audio and video signals.

How is the digital Audio signal transported:

The multi-channel audio is time multiplexed into the TMDS data streams. Audio is much lower data rate (192kbps) and the extra time is used to demux the audio signals.

What is HDCP:

HDCP is an acronym for High-Bandwidth Digital Content Protection. HDCP is an encryption method developed by Intel in order to control unauthorized copying of digital media. The encryption is carried out in the HDMI transmitter found in the "source" ( dvd player, set top box) and decryption is carried out by the HDMI receiver ( the HDTV display). The secret keys for encryption are exchanged between the source and display over an I2C bus ( pins 15 and 16).

Is HDMI compatible with DVI:

DVI is the predecessor to HDMI. HDMI and DVI are identical as far as video is concerned. Therefore, video backward compatibility exists. However, DVI will not support digital audio. For example, if you have an older DVI connection on your source and a HDMI connector on your display, a HDMI to DVI cable is all that is needed in order to view the video. A separate audio cable ( TOSLINK or SPDIF) will be needed to carry the digital audio.

What formats will HDMI support:

HDMI is high speed digital connection and will support resolutions of 480i, 480P, 720i, 720P, 1080i and 1080P.

HDTV technology is changing rapidly. HD connections such as HDMI will become the de facto standard in HDTV connections.

HDMI cable

See also:
PC stereo hookup

Windows Sound Recorder

See over 40 Hookup Diagrams

Timer Record Radio Shows on a VCR

TV too loud?

FM transmitter for TV sound

Camcorder hookup to TV, DVD

Camcorder Buying Guide

Compare video editing software

Audio Video Connections

Video Cables Connections

Hookup Diagrams

HDMI Switch box

Contact Columbia ISA